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AVD RDP Shortpath for public networks validation

This script will test the connected virtual network of the machine, and validate if required outbound communication to use RDP Shortpath for public networks is open.
Version: 1.1.3
Created: 2022-10-05
Modified: 2022-10-06
Creator: Ton de Vreede
Downloads: 3
Tags: avd azure Shortpath
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#requires -version 5.1

<#
.SYNOPSIS
    Validate connectivity to the STUN endpoints

.DESCRIPTION
    This script will test the connected virtual network of the machine, and validate if required outbound communication to use RDP Shortpath for public networks is open.

.EXAMPLE
    & '.\AVD RDP Shortpath for public networks validation.ps1'

.LINK
 https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/virtual-desktop/troubleshoot-rdp-shortpath

.NOTES
 Copy of script from Microsoft article on troubleshooting RDP Shortpath for public networks, see link.
 Console does not support color output as used by Write-Host but left in place for stand alone use as it will not cause any issues.
#>

function Checking {
 param ( $what )
 Write-Host -Object "Checking $what ... " -NoNewline -ForegroundColor White
}
function Ok {
 Write-Host -Object "OK" -ForegroundColor Green
}
function Fail {
 Write-Host "FAIL" -ForegroundColor Red
}

function Test-StunEndpoint {
 param
 (
  [Parameter(Mandatory)]
  $UdpClient,
  [Parameter(Mandatory)]
  $StunEndpoint
 )
 $ipendpoint = $null

 Checking "STUN on server $StunEndpoint"
 try {
  $UdpClient.client.ReceiveTimeout = 5000
  $listenport = $UdpClient.client.localendpoint.port
  $endpoint = New-Object -TypeName System.Net.IPEndPoint -ArgumentList ([IPAddress]::Any, $listenport)


  [Byte[]] $payload =
  0x00, 0x01, # Message Type: 0x0001 (Binding Request)
  0x00, 0x00, # Message Length: 0 bytes excluding header
  0x21, 0x12, 0xa4, 0x42 # Magic Cookie: Always 0x2112A442

  $LocalTransactionId = ([guid]::NewGuid()).ToByteArray()[1..12]
  $payload = $payload + $LocalTransactionId

  try {
   $null = $UdpClient.Send($payload, $payload.length, $StunEndpoint)
  }
  catch {
   throw "Unable to send data, check if $($StunEndpoint.AddressFamily) is configured"
  }

  try {
   $content = $UdpClient.Receive([ref]$endpoint)
  }
  catch {
   try {
    $null = $UdpClient.Send($payload, $payload.length, $StunEndpoint)
    $content = $UdpClient.Receive([ref]$endpoint)
   }
   catch {
    try {
     $null = $UdpClient.Send($payload, $payload.length, $StunEndpoint)
     $content = $UdpClient.Receive([ref]$endpoint)
    }
    catch {
     throw "Unable to receive data, check if firewall allows access to $($StunEndpoint.ToString())"
    }
   }
  }


  if (-not $content) {
   throw  'Null response.'
  }

  [Byte[]]$messageType = $content[0..1]
  [Byte[]]$messageCookie = $content[4..7]
  [Byte[]]$TransactionId = $content[8..19]
  [Byte[]]$AttributeType = $content[20..21]
  [Byte[]]$AttributeLength = $content[22..23]

  if ([System.BitConverter]::IsLittleEndian) {
   [Array]::Reverse($AttributeLength)
  }

  if ( -not ([BitConverter]::ToString($messageType)) -eq '01-01') {
   throw  "Invalid message type: $([BitConverter]::ToString($messageType))"
  }
  if ( -not ([BitConverter]::ToString($messageCookie)) -eq '21-12-A4-42') {
   throw  "Invalid message cookie: $([BitConverter]::ToString($messageCookie))"
  }

  if (-not  ([BitConverter]::ToString($TransactionId)) -eq [BitConverter]::ToString($LocalTransactionId) ) {
   throw  "Invalid message id: $([BitConverter]::ToString($TransactionId))"
  }
  if (-not  ([BitConverter]::ToString($AttributeType)) -eq '00-20' ) {
   throw  "Invalid Attribute Type: $([BitConverter]::ToString($AttributeType))"
  }
  $ProtocolByte = $content[25]
  if (-not (($ProtocolByte -eq 1) -or ($ProtocolByte -eq 2))) {
   throw "Invalid Address Type: $([BitConverter]::ToString($ProtocolByte))"
  }
  $portArray = $content[26..27]
  if ([System.BitConverter]::IsLittleEndian) {
   [Array]::Reverse($portArray)
  }

  $port = [Bitconverter]::ToUInt16($portArray, 0) -bxor 0x2112

  if ($ProtocolByte -eq 1) {
   $IPbytes = $content[28..31]
   if ([System.BitConverter]::IsLittleEndian) {
    [Array]::Reverse($IPbytes)
   }
   $IPByte = [System.BitConverter]::GetBytes(([Bitconverter]::ToUInt32($IPbytes, 0) -bxor 0x2112a442))

   if ([System.BitConverter]::IsLittleEndian) {
    [Array]::Reverse($IPByte)
   }
   $IP = [ipaddress]::new($IPByte)
  }
  elseif ($ProtocolByte -eq 2) {
   $IPbytes = $content[28..44]
   [Byte[]]$magic = $content[4..19]
   for ($i = 0; $i -lt $IPbytes.Count; $i ++) {
    $IPbytes[$i] = $IPbytes[$i] -bxor $magic[$i]
   }
   $IP = [ipaddress]::new($IPbytes)
  }
  $ipendpoint = [IPEndpoint]::new($IP, $port)
  Ok
 }
 catch {
  Fail
  Write-Warning "Failed to communicate with $($StunEndpoint.ToString()) with error: $_"
 }
 return $ipendpoint
}
$stunServer1Name = "stun.azure.com"

try {
 Checking "DNS service"
 $stunDns = Resolve-DnsName $stunServer1Name -Type A -ea Stop
 $stunServer1 = [IPEndpoint]::new([ipaddress]::Parse($stunDns.IP4Address), 3478)
 Ok
}
catch {
 Fail
 Write-Warning "DNS resolution of $stunServer1Name failed. This might be a temporary failure, or your firewall might restrict DNS queries.`nThe script will continue with a numeric IP instead.`nSee <fwlink here> for more information."
 $stunServer1 = [IPEndpoint]::new([ipaddress]::Parse('20.202.22.68'), 3478)
}

$stunServer2 = [IPEndpoint]::new([ipaddress]::Parse('13.107.17.41'), 3478)

$UdpClient = [Net.Sockets.UdpClient]::new([Net.Sockets.AddressFamily]::InterNetwork)

$ipendpoint1 = Test-StunEndpoint -UdpClient $UdpClient -StunEndpoint $stunServer1
$ipendpoint2 = Test-StunEndpoint -UdpClient $UdpClient -StunEndpoint $stunServer2

if (($null -eq $ipendpoint1) -or ($null -eq $ipendpoint2)) {
 Write-Host -Object "`n`nSTUN did not work properly.`nShortpath for public networks is VERY UNLIKELY to work on this host.`nSee https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=2204021 for more information." -ForegroundColor Red
}
elseif ($ipendpoint1.Equals($ipendpoint2)) {
 Write-Host -Object "`n`nSuccessfully established connections to the STUN servers." -ForegroundColor Green
 Write-Warning -Message "This test performs connectivity checks from the Session Host network only, for RDP Shortpath on Public Networks to work your networking design in Azure must comply with NAT requirements as defined by Microsoft.`nSee https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/virtual-desktop/rdp-shortpath?tabs=public-networks#network-address-translation-and-firewalls for more information."
}
else {
 Write-Host -Object "`n`nSTUN works, but your NAT type appears to be 'symmetric'.`nShortpath for public networks is VERY UNLIKELY to work on this host.`nSee https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=2204021 for more information." -ForegroundColor Red
}

$UdpClient.Close()